Epithalon

What Is Epithalon?

September 24, 2015 benhalbrik 0

 Epithalon is a short peptide consisting of just four amino acids (Alanine-Glutamate-Asparagine-Glycine). In animal studies, epithalon has been shown to affect melatonin secretion as well as telomerase activity. The molecule is sometimes referred to as epithalone, epitalon, LS-72251, and CID2192042. Epithalon was developed in Russia (isolated from the bovine (cow) pineal gland) and has received attention for its anti-aging and anti-carcinogenic properties as well as for its ability to regulate melatonin secretion.

The Anti-Cancer Effects of Epithalon

A 2002 study on transgenic mice prone to cancer produced surprising results. Epithalon prolonged the average lifetime of the cancer-prone her2/neu mice by 13.5% when administered subcutaneously 5 times per week. The molecule appeared to suppress the development of cancer and reduce metastasis (spread) of existing cancers. Overall, cancer rates in mice that were provided epithalon were 3.7 times lower than in mice who did not receive the peptide. The mice that did develop cancer lived 1.7 times longer if they received epithalon compared to mice that did not. Epithalon also extended the life of mice without cancer substantially1 .

The Anti-Aging Effects of Epithalon

The anti-aging effects of epithalon appear to be a result of its ability to activate telomerase. Telomerase is an enzyme, found in all cells, that maintains the length of telomeres. Telomeres are specialized sequences of the DNA that protect chromosomes from damage, but shorten over time as an organism ages. Maintenance of telomere length has been associated with … [Read the rest]

Biochemistry of TB-500

The Biochemistry of TB-500 (Thymosin Beta-4)

September 24, 2015 benhalbrik 0

 

TB-500 is a synthetic analog of the active region of thymosin beta-4 (TB4). TB4 is a protein that is active in the sequestration of actin and thus plays a role in actin polymerization. Actin is a globular protein that, when polymerized, forms microfilaments. Microfilaments are fundamental components of cell structure and make up a number of different proteins. These filaments play active roles in cell growth, cell division, cell proliferation, muscle function, and cell longevity.

The Genetics of TB4

TB4 is an interesting protein because the gene that encodes it is found in two variations. The main variation is found on the X chromosome, which is found in both males and females. A variant, known as thymosin beta-4 Y-chromosomal, is found on the male-specific region of the Y chromosome and thus is only found in males. This means that males have an additional thymosin beta gene that is not found in females and which escapes X inactivation1. Though the significance of this additional TB4-like gene has not yet been elucidated, it does appear to play a role in the increased muscle growth seen in male as opposed to female mammals.

TB-500 and Sarcomere Function

The primary components of muscle sarcomeres, the proteins responsible for muscle contraction and thus strength, are actin and myosin. Myosin provides the active component of contraction while active provides the structural component against which myosin acts. Sarcomeres are found primarily in skeletal and cardiac … [Read the rest]

growth-hormone-release

How Does Ipamorelin Affect Growth Hormone?

September 24, 2015 benhalbrik 0

Ipamorelin is a synthetic agonist of the ghrelin receptor and ghrelin is often referred to as the hunger hormone. Higher levels of ghrelin receptor activation lead to increased appetite, but they also lead to increased growth and changes in energy metabolism. How does ipamorelin create its effects?

Ipamorelin and Ghrelin

Ipamorelin is a five-amino-acid protein (Aib-His-D-2-Nal-D-Phe-Lys-NH2) derived from growth hormone releasing peptide-1 (another agonist of the ghrelin receptor). It was originally developed to aid in treatment of postoperative ileus (slow movement of food through the intestine after surgery), but has since been investigated as a potential growth hormone stimulant and for its beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cognitive function.

Ipamorelin can be thought of as a synthetic form of ghrelin. Ghrelin (lenomorlin) is a naturally occurring protein produced by specific cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Though produced in the GI tract, ghrelin activates receptors in the central nervous system to stimulate hunger and regulate the distribution and rate of use of energy throughout the body. When the stomach is empty, ghrelin is secreted, reaching its highest levels just before eating. The best way to think of ghrelin is as a preparatory hormone. It gets the body ready for food intake and part of that function is to increase release of growth hormone so that the body is prepared to make use of the energy that will be consumed in the form of food.

Ipamorelin and Growth Hormone

Ipamorelin causes … [Read the rest]

Epithalon as Sleep Aid

The Effects of Epithalon

September 24, 2015 benhalbrik 0

Epithalon is a synthetic peptide that is just four amino acids long (Alanine-Glutamate-Asparagine-Glycine) and was originally isolated from cow pineal gland. Despite its small size, epithalon has been found to have some amazing effects. It is being widely tested for its anti-cancer, anti-aging, and sleep-regulating effects.

Epithalon as Cancer Therapy.

Studies suggest that even small doses of epithalon are effective in prolonging the lives of mice suffering from certain forms of cancer. It has also been found to suppress cancer formation in mice that are genetically prone to certain tumors. In particular, epithalon is being developed as a potential treatment for breast cancers that express the HER-2/neu gene mutation1. More recent research suggests that epithalon may also prevent the development of spontaneous tumors in the testicle as well as leukemias2,3.

Eipthalon as Fountain of Youth

Epithalon has been shown to activate the enzyme telomerase, which is responsible for maintaining the integrity of telomeres. Telomeres cap the ends of chromosomes and because chromosomes shorten each time they are replicated for cell division, eventually disappear. To prevent DNA damage from occurring, cells with telomeres that are too short are killed off. This process, known as apoptosis, occurs in most human and mammalian cells and is part of the reason that organisms age. Telomerase repairs telomeres and thus prevents apoptosis and its aging effects from occurring. By activating telomerase, epithalon can ward off at least some of the effects of aging such … [Read the rest]